ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEA
Tea is the oldest and most useful natural drink. It is loved by millions of people drink at any time of the year, day and night, as a treat and as a medicine. This is one of the most mysterious phenomena that exist on Earth, long studied, but little studied. His story, despite numerous studies scholars, is still shrouded in mystery. And how many beautiful legends and myths associated with the tea and tea traditions in different countries of the world.

Tea plant

Tea is an evergreen tropical plant of the family kamilievich (Camelliasinensis). There are two main types: Chinese (Camelliasinensis var. sinensis) and Assam (Camelliasinensis var. assamica).

Under the influence of the environment and because of differences in soil and climatic conditions of the tea plants change both external and anatomical characteristics. Wild tea in Assam - tree c large leaves, reaching a height of 15-18 meters, in China and Japan - it is rather a shrub up to 3 m Gantsevichi toothed leaflets.

The tea plant can be a tree, reaching 15-18 meters

The tea plant likes frequent abundant watering and high humidity, without making the stagnation of water at the roots, that is why tea was chosen by the slopes of the mountains and terraced hills.

The life expectancy of tea plant can be calculated several centuries, but over the years reduced the quantity and quality of leaves. As practice shows, the most productive age of tea plants on slopes up to 70 years, and in the plains - to 40 - 50.

Often, tea propagated by cuttings in special greenhouses. 50-inch plants are transplanted at the plantation. Subsequently, with the growth of the tea Bush, constantly pruned and extensive crown "form" at the waist of the person for easy collection of leaves.

Tea grows in zones of tropical and subtropical climate. The main "tea" region is South - East Asia (India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan and so on), but it is grown and in some countries of Africa, Europe and South America.

History

2737 B.C.According to legend, in 2737 B.C. ripped off by the wind tea leaves fell into boiling water, cooked for the mythical Emperor Shen-Nun, who was so impressed by accident resulting drink that he ordered his subjects to brew and drink tea.

The birth place of tea - ancient China. There rooted in the centuries old tradition as the world tea production and tea with its unique ceremonies.

618906 A.D. theGolden age of tea in China falls on the reign of the Tang dynasty (618-906 A.D. the), when the cultivation and manufacture of tea purchased in China are of paramount importance, the tea party has evolved into a complex ceremony, and in different parts of the country began to receive special Imperial gardens. Tea from these plantations was the beginning of the world-famous collections of Chinese green tea in the Treasury of the national culture of China as an incomparable works.

Collection of green tea BERNLEY is an excellent choice for lovers of green tea. Included in it blends are created by extant ancient recipes.

1867"Second birth place" of tea recognized as Sri Lanka (until 1972 - Ceylon), where tea bushes were brought from China in the XIX century. The first tea plantation in Ceylon was founded by Scotsman James Taylor in 1867 - the year is considered the year of birth local tea growing.

Sri Lanka produces annually more than 300 million kg of tea, which is 10% of the total tea production in the world. It all began with the sale of 23 pounds of tea at auction in London in 1873, most recently by the standards of "tea civilization".

The use of machines allows reduce the duration of the process up to 8-10 hours. In the withering leaves terapeut moisture, are made of soft and elastic, when the bend don't break and are easy the next process is to curl.

Tea is contain moisture about 75-78%

KandyThe height of the plantations above sea level 600 - 1200 m.
DimbulaThe height of the plantations above sea level 1050 - 1650 m.
SabaragamuwaThe height of the plantations above sea level 800 - 2200 m.
RuhunaThe height of the plantations above sea level 600 m.
UvaThe height of the plantations above sea level 900 - 1500 m.
Uda PussellavaThe height of the plantations above sea level 1800 m.
Nuwara EliyaThe height of the plantations above sea level 2000 - 2200 m.
A collection of classic English tea BERNLEY is made from tea grown in the highland plantations and consists of classic and specially created for her tea blends.

Tea production

Whole process of tea production is focused primarily on maintaining ready production of the greatest amount of nutrients, which are rich in tea plants.

The younger and thinner leaves, the higher the quality of them tea. Therefore, the raw material for the production of high-quality and expensive varieties certainly collect manually. Used on plantations tea cleaning machines.

But the applicability is often limited because of the difficult mountainous terrain. Also collect machine raw material obtained low quality, because it contains all the sheets in a row.

Despite the fact that today many varieties and types of tea differ from each other in appearance, aroma and flavor, they are all made from the same raw materials.

The production of tea is a tea factory, and includes such processes as drying, curling, fermentation, drying and sorting. Some of them can be skipped depending on the type of tea.

In the manufacture of black tea raw materials through all stages of processing and in the production of green - only drying, curling and drying.

The withering

First manufacturing process of black tea. Its purpose is to remove moisture from the tea leaves, as a result, biochemical changes occur more rapidly. In long products tea leaf moisture content 75-78% and after drying the sheet should contain 62-64 %.

The withering is natural and artificial. Natural is usually applied in countries with a hot climate. In colder used artificial drying in special devices - rotating drums, surrounded by a wire grating, through which blow hot air. Under natural conditions the sheet is about 20 hours. In wet weather, the process can last 36-48 hours.

The use of machines allows reduce the duration of the process up to 8-10 hours. In the withering leaves terapeut moisture, are made of soft and elastic, when the bend don't break and are easy the next process is to curl.

Tea is contain moisture about75-78%

Twisting

This process is carried out in special machines - roller, its goal is the destruction of the tissues of the leaf, during which the contents of the cells are mixed and begin the biochemical processes of oxidation and fermentation.

The method and degree of curl have a significant impact on the quality of the finished tea. Tea obtained by lightly twisting, welding gives a weak infusion and tea from strongly twisted raw material gives a strong infusion.

Since the twisting begins the development of oxidative processes in roller workshops supported by high relative humidity - 96-98 %, moderate temperature 22-26 degrees and perfect cleanliness.

After twisting the tea leaf undergoes a process of fermentation, which is the culmination of biochemical processes that occur during the drying and curling.

In roller workshops supported purity high humidity and moderate temperature 22-26 °C

In roller workshops supported purity high humidity and moderate temperature22-26 °C

Fermentation

At this stage curled sheet in the oxidation process becomes copper-red color, and change of matter, giving the tea leaf bitterness. For the normal course of the fermentation process requires high humidity and relatively low temperature.

The process of fermentation, depending on the speed of transformation of substances can be fast or slow.

For fast fermentation tea leaf crumple or twisted, damaging cell membranes and substances become more active to oxidize and react with each other.

In a typical fermentation, the leaves are laid on racks in layers of thickness up to 10 cm in special rooms where constant temperature and high humidity. The fermentation process occurs from 3 to 5 hours, the fermentation coarse tea raw material takes more time.

It is in the process of fermentation the tea gets its brown color and tart flavor.

Drying

Goal of this stage is the termination of the fermentation process under high temperature, remove from the sheet of excessive moisture. The residual humidity of the material should not exceed 5-7 %.

Drying takes place in a special machines at temperatures from 90 °C (for green tea) up to 120 °C (black tea).

Drying takes place in a special machines at temperatures from 90 °C (for green tea) up to 120 °C (black tea)5-7%

Sorting

Sorting is the final and very important step in the manufacture of tea, that is produced by the same technology tea is divided into groups and categories with the use of a vibrating conveyor. The main criterion is the appearance of the tea leaves, the degree of grinding and the presence of unopened leaf buds - tips.

Classification of black tea was developed in the early twentieth century. According to this classification, tea is divided into two large groups: sheet (WholeLeaf) and crushed (Broken). Crushed consists of three categories - directly broken or cut (Broken), bran (Fannings) and dust (Dust).

Packing

Improvement packing is one of the main aspects of all tea companies. Tea is a product requiring special storage conditions. It easily absorbs odors, so packaging is an important component of quality tea.

In addition, packing is the protection of products against forgery. In premium collections BERNLEY used holographic tear-off ribbon coated with her trademark logo, forge which is almost impossible.

In Russia tea is delivered in containers by sea. For transportation uses a special, multi-layer bags, protecting it from environmental influences. The final packaging is done at the Russian tea packing factories that are able to produce products of high international class. High demands are placed on the materials used, which comply with Russian and European standards.

In premium collections BERNLEY used holographic tear-off ribbon coated with her trademark logo, forge which is almost impossible.

Packing tea bags

Quality tea bags are in no way inferior to traditional sheet. He gives a rich aromatic extract and a large surface of contact between the fine tea leaves with boiling water provides quick brewing. Today it is packaged tea acquires in the world more and more fans and increase its consumption is one of the main trends in the development of the tea industry.

Born in the early twentieth century by pure chance, tea bag for a relatively short time has gained a lot of fans around the world. Priority in the invention give a New York tea merchant Thomas Sullivan, who in 1908 began to send samples of their goods to potential buyers in small hand-sewn silk bags. Some of them guessed brew tea, dropping the bags right into a Cup of boiling water. The idea was tempting, as it offered a convenient and simple method of preparation of the drink.

Soon tea bags had been produced in factories and sold in stores, and replaced the expensive silk came gauze. But she gave a tea unpleasant "rag" taste and after some time was replaced by a special paper, which were made first on the basis of Manila hemp, and later viscose. Today the bags are made of special filter paper, based on wood fibre.

First tea bags appeared in 1908

Medicinal properties

Since ancient times people have appreciated tea for its healing properties, using them to maintain their strength.

When creating the first commercial tea in London in 1660, special emphasis was placed health properties of tea, which was named "Best doctor".

Today we know that tea is rich in necessary for the human body with vitamins and minerals, has a powerful therapeutic effect, anti-aging properties and is an excellent tool for those who are watching their health and figure.

Antioxidants neutralize the products of oxidation in the body and prevent their harmful effects on the cells. They reduce the risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system, prevent the development of cancer, increase the body's resistance.

Tea contains manganese, zinc, potassium, magnesium and helps to maintain the balance of minerals.

He also has soothing properties, relieves mental tension, stimulates the nervous system and helps the digestive process.

Tea in Russia

With the history of tea in Russia is connected with many legends. One of them, at the Royal court he appeared in 1638, when he was brought as a gift to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich from the Mongol Khan. First, the Emperor did not want to take "dried Chinese grass", then tried "exotic" drink that I liked him and his boyars.

With the history of tea in Russia is connected with many legends. One of them, at the Royal court he appeared in 1638, when he was brought as a gift to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich from the Mongol Khan. First, the Emperor did not want to take "dried Chinese grass", then tried "exotic" drink that I liked him and his boyars.

Second place goes to green tea. This is due to the fact that a growing number of people who pay attention to the useful properties of the products. Green tea is simply irreplaceable and associated population with "healthy lifestyle".

The segment of green tea in Russia is increasing. Assortment consuming features traditional green leaf and bagged tea and tea with additives Jasmine, mint, lemon, giving it flavor.

Increasing consumer interest in exotic varieties of tea, primarily to milk Oolong is one of the most famous Chinese teas.

Confirmation of this could be quickly becoming popular among consumers BERNLEY "Milky Oolong" is a magnificent Chinese Oolong tea with milk aroma, created by the masters of tea arts specially for those who loves to enjoy fine tea.

First in Russia, tea learned the inhabitants of Siberia. Until the end of the nineteenth century the mass entered the country through Mongolia and Siberia - the way of tea to Moscow was almost 11 thousand kilometers.

Tea was a luxury item and was 110 times more expensive than caviar. By the early nineteenth century tea became the life of the Russian people, and became the national drink.

The first world war Russia came in second place in the world in consumption of tea, second only to the UK.

Preparation of tea

Quality of tea depends on storage conditions. Keep the tea needs in tightly sealed containers in a dry, dark place.

The hosts certainly will appeal to a sealed metal cans BERNLEY, which is very convenient for storing tea, and most importantly protect it from exposure to the environment.

When brewed, it is recommended to use: porcelain, ceramic, clay and glass teapots. The cover should have an opening for air, tea needs to "breath".

Before brewing to rinse the teapot with boiling water should twice - then its space will be clean from previous brews. On the quality of the drink affects water. Tea poorly brewed in hard water. Foreign substances can ruin even a quality product. The duration of infusion depends on its type. Normally it should not exceed 4-5 minutes.

The most delicious, fragrant and useful only freshly brewed tea, no more than 10 minutes.

The most delicious, fragrant and useful only freshly brewed tea, no more than 10 minutes.

Green tea leaf when welding is not scalded. The water temperature is not more than 80 degrees. The same serving of green tea, unlike black, can be brewed 2 or 3 times. This is largely due to what green tea has a bitter taste and to make green tea softer it is filled with water several times.

Black tea
  1. The water temperature should not exceed 95 °C
  2. Welding occurs in 2 doses 1 - 1/3 2 - 2/3
  3. Black tea is brewed only once.
Green tea
  1. Green tea should not be scalding - you need to brew with water not more than 80 °C
  2. Welding occurs in three stages 1 - 1/3 2 - 1/2 and 3 3/4
  3. Then half of the welding poured into cups and top up with water maker
  4. One serving of Green tea can be brewed 2-3 times